Let us know discuss about the various layers of the atmosphere. The various layers in the atmosphere are distinguished, by what happens to the temperature in that particular layer.
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is called as Troposphere. In the troposphere, temperature falls with height. As the height increases the temperature reduces. The height of troposphere is between 16 to 18 kilometres at the equator and 8 to 10 kilometres near the poles. Therefore the average height is taken as 11 kilometres.
The next layer is called as the Tropopause. Tropopause defines the upper limit of troposphere. Tropopause is an isothermal layer. Isothermal means the temperature remains constant with increase in height.
The next layer is called a Stratosphere. Stratosphere extends from the end of tropopause to 50 kilometres from the earth surface. In the stratosphere, temperature increases with increase in height.
The next layer is called as Stratopause. Stratopause signifies the upper limit of stratosphere where the temperature stops increasing any further. This is an isothermal layer where the temperature remains constant.
The next layer is called as Mesosphere. This layer extends from the end of Stratopause to 80 kilometres above the earth’s surface. In the mesosphere temperature again starts falling with height. By now, you would have guessed that the next layer is called as mesopause, which is an isothermal layer.
Thereafter we have the Thermosphere where temperature again starts increasing with height. And finally, we have Exosphere which extends above 700 kilometres of the Earth’s surface. In the Thermosphere, the air density is very low and atmosphere can be considered to be almost absent.
There is a layer called Ionosphere, which is found in the upper levels of Stratosphere. In the Ionosphere, you would find a lot of free ions or free electrons. This Ionospheric layer is responsible for many types of radio wave transmissions.